A building system or component that has the capability to change its behavior or form in direct response to its environment. A complex adaptive system (CAS) may further integrate sensors and an autonomous control system
Manufacturing process that builds-up three-dimensional objects by deposition of material either as fine layers (layered deposition) or component voxels (material deposition). Generically referred to as 3D Printing (3DP).
Involves simultaneously completing design and manufacturing stages of production and requires extensive communication and coordination between disciplines, however the benefits include a sustainable environment for product development and more comprehensively developed results
Number of parameters of a system that may vary independently and define its configuration or state. In mechanics, it is the number of independent motions that are allowed to the body or, in case of a mechanism made of several bodies, the number of possible independent relative motions between the pieces of the mechanism.
Project aimed at demonstrating the performance of a new technology in an operational environment with a system at or near scale of the operational system, with most functions implemented. Architectural demonstrators facilitate the transition from research into a technically mature architectural application
The human-driven, often computer-assisted, divergent/convergent process used to evolve and investigate multidisciplinary design space, with the intent of design and to inform decision making throughout the process
Approaches coming from the use of the Limit Analysis' Safe Theorem, for which a structure can be considered safe if an internal admissible stress states in equilibrium with the given loads can be found
Refers to the shape a string takes when hung end to end, generalised for non-selfweight loading cases. "Funicular" defines a structure that achieves an equilibrium state by adopting a geometry corresponding to the applied loads. Note: technically, a tension-only shape is "funicular", the inverted compression-only shape is "anti-funicular", however, as such geometry is identical but mirrored, the term funicular is colloquially used to refer to either hanging or arching equilibrium geometries
In a 3D printing process the green part is the printed object that has not obtained its final mechanical or other properties. The object goes through another step (typically heat treatment or coating) to form the final object with the desired properties
The speed with which concrete hardens. The water causes the hardening of concrete through a process called hydration. Hydration is a chemical reaction in which the major compounds in cement form chemical bonds with water molecules and become hydrates or hydration products. Aggregates, e.g. stones, sand gravel are chemically inert, solid bodies held together by the cement
Geometrical object representing the direction of assembly from one building element to the other. If the shape of a connector allows for only one possible insertion vector, the connector is said to have only one degree of freedom
The set of electro-mechanical components dedicated to the motion of one or more parts of the manufacturing setup. Opposed to the rotational axis, the motion involved develops along the segment of a line
Advanced method of process control that utilizes a dynamic model to predict the future response of a plant, and computes the optimal control action as the solution of a suitably formulated optimization problem
Methods based on plastic theory have been developed to determine the collapse load of a structure at its ultimate limit state. The application requires an admissible state of equilibrium, the respect of the yield conditions and a plastic behaviour of the system
A holistic organisation of tasks, relationships, and responsibilities that includes deliberate consideration for the sharing of tasks between humans and technology, with the aim that technology is developed to better fit worker’s competencies, needs, and values
The study of the flow of matter, primarily in a liquid or gas state, but also as "soft solids" or solids under conditions in which they respond with plastic flow rather than deforming elastically in response to an applied force
Heat treatment commonly used to increase the strength and structural integrity of a given material. Powder metallurgy processes use sintering to convert metal powders and other unique materials into end-use parts
i) the effect of introducing a technology, programme or policy on the opportunities for stakeholders to reach socially valued goals. ii) the implications for change in work (skills,process or definition) through use or opportunities of technology in achieving individual and organizational goals
Novel approach for manufacturing steel parts harvesting 3D printing technology. Steel is cast at low temperature in a 3D printed mould. The mold is dissolved and the final object is sintered to acquire its final mechanical properties (316L SS)
TABS integrate a hydronic pipe network into the structure of a building. Internal building surfaces are transformed into radiant panels, which can be used for heating or cooling purposes. In comparison to air-based space conditioning systems, TABS offer a number of advantages. These include less equipment noise, less draft and an improved vertical air temperature distribution. Further, the utilisation of large surface areas allows a supply temperature of near room temperature for heating and cooling modes. The low temperature range is compatible with the use of renewable energy sources
A material that can sustain loads reacting only in a direction, that is exhibiting either compressive (masonry) or tensile normal forces (cables). The masonry material, due to the almost negligible strength in tension, can exhibit only internal compressive stress states, and, thus, can be considered an unilateral material
Internal mechanical contact condition in a material or among blocks. E.g, the generic cross-section of a steel beam is a virtual element showing a typical internal bilateral contact: the two ideal parts of the beams can interact both in tension and in compression. Two vertically stacked and simple supported blocks are in an unilateral contact over a “real” interface and thus exchanging only compressive forces; but if the interface is provided with glue they are interacting bilaterally
A joinery technique used to establish a connection between timber elements solely through their geometry (form-closure) and by means of interlocking,without the use of metal fasteners, nails, screws, or adhesive. Digital fabrication techniques and information-tool technologies are used to build the wood-wood connections.